By A. Reutlinger
This primary complete size therapy of interventionist theories of causation within the social sciences, the organic sciences and different higher-level sciences the provides unique counter arguments to contemporary developments within the debate and serves as invaluable advent to the topic.
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Additional info for A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences
Therefore, let us explore some more detailed information on Bayesian networks that is often implicitly used by proponents of interventionist theories of causation. A Bayesian network6 is an ordered pair 〈G, Pr〉, with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G consisting of and defined for: • a set of variables V; and • a set of directed edges connecting the variables, and a joint probability distribution Pr over the variables of the graph. e. variables and edges), and a probability distribution over a causal graph.
Interventionists respect and, prima facie, satisfy this requirement as a criterion of adequacy: according to the interventionist view, causation requires invariant relationships between cause and effect. These invariant relations are described by so-called invariant generalizations, which are not required to be universal. However, the invariance of a generalization is defined in terms of possible interventions; that is, a generalization is invariant under possible interventions. This is unfortunate for interventionists, because the notion of a possible intervention is a troubled one, as Causation in the Special Sciences 23 argued in Chapter 4.
According to Woodward and Hitchcock (2003: 17) and Woodward (2003: 250), a generalization G is minimally invariant iff the testing intervention condition holds for G. The testing intervention condition states for a generalization G of the form Y = f(X): (a) there are at least two different possible values of an endogenous variable X, x1 and x2, for which Y realizes a value in the way that G describes, and (b) the fact that X takes x1 or, alternatively, x2 is the result of an intervention. The invariance theory of laws will be the subject of Chapter 5.